Dolan, P., Peasgood, T., & White, M. (2008). Five ways to well-being: The evidence. 44. Diener, R., Kemeza, I., et al. and hard landscape (ideally traffic free or reduced ? The Built Environment and Mental Health. The potential for a lift to be installed and/or the adaptation of the home for single-floor living (bedroom and bathroom on the ground floor – also useful for temporary ill health and privacy if designed well). Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 336–337. Participation in learning and well-being among older adults. This intentionally disorientating approach demonstrates an extreme approach, but a moderate and pragmatic orchestration of architecture to promote well-being is clearly viable. Nicol, J., & Humphreys, M. (2002). 28. (2010). Physical activity and risk of cognitive decline: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. WELL is a new building standard, now available in Asia, that seeks to be universal, i.e., applicable to … Environmental correlates of physical activity and walking in adults and children: A review of reviews. 37. His current work deals with the architectural and urban implications of environmental issues ranging from energy use to human comfort. CABE. A review of the economic literature on the factors associated with subjective well-being. 24. Recent research has demonstrated connections of key physical design characteristics with the Five Ways to Well-Being (Connect, Keep Active, Take Notice, Keep Learning and Give), which have been associated with positive mental health13. Energy and Buildings, 175–182. The critical next question is to discuss how the Five Ways to Well-Being relate to and are influenced by the built environment. London: New Economics Foundation. 18. Domestic parameters include a home that is clean and uncluttered, appears safe for play and is not dark or monotonous35. A systematic review. The structure of this article is divided into three sections. VOCs, PM or CO2 ) and its impact, particularly on vulnerable occupants (e.g. The same study also showed that diverse types of open space (combining green as well as hard landscaping) and a higher relative proportion of public to private space is also associated with increased reported mindfulness. Why is natural light so important in school design? To a large extent, factors such as where we live, the state of our environment, genetics, our income and education level, and our relationships with friends and family all have considerable impacts on health …”, The notion of well-being consists of two key elements: feeling good and functioning well…. Similarly, health research has extended from the treatment of symptoms to incorporate a wider and more holistic appreciation of well-being of the population. (2000). Energy and Buildings, 563–572. Consider the acoustics as one progresses through the house: a gravel path will alert the occupant to visitors arriving; an echoey hallway and stairwell can signal when people are gathering; a carpeted corridor dampens the noise to the study; and soft furnishings and bedding creates a tranquil environment for sleep. 35. Social Psychology, 183–184. Design strategies to promote indoor physical activity include: the provision of (shared) exercise space, encouraging stair use through the distribution (separation) of functions over different floor levels, and creating attractive experiences along circulation routes (views, art, daylight, greenery). Recent work has changed this and has established a more holistic awareness of the role of architecture in health. Conversely, the lounge/tv area should be less accessible from the kitchen (potentially upstairs to encourage physical exercise), limiting the temptation for tv dinners but also providing potential separation in terms of noise, odours and pollutants. Social Indicators Research, 157–176. However, rather than focusing on ill health, the definition and study of well-being has been emphasising the behaviours that support a ‘flourishing’ population. Having positive relationships, control over your own life and a sense of purpose are all attributes of functioning well. Aked, J., Thompson, S., Marks, N., & Cordon, C. (2008). Abingdon: Routledge. temperature, air movement). 31. sports centres and equipment), convenient and proximate access to destinations (work, shops, school, public transport), high residential density (which is associated with greater proximity to facilities and destinations), land use (e.g. There are numerous guidance documents related to this43, but some key considerations include: Such design considerations should also incorporate strategies to ensure that partners and carers of wheelchair users are encouraged to remain active. It is the built-environment characteristics that support such positive behaviour, which is a key point of discussion here. The notion of well-being consists of two key elements: feeling good and functioning well. Korte, C., & Kerr, N. (1974). Sustainable places for health and Well-being. 19. (2011). consequences on physical and mental health) as well as indirect (e.g. Design characteristics associated with increasing activity include access to physical activity facilities (e.g. NICE. light that is from above, the side, direct, diffuse, adjustable by shutters, louvres and blinds). Energy and Buildings, 563–572. (2011). J Intern Med, 107–117. Electrical sockets not too low, and worktops, handles, thermostats and light switches not too high (allowing all users control over their home environment). 32. 45. This supports current theory and research, which shows that a sufficient quantity and quality of diverse environmental, social and physical resources can influence human cognition, which, in turn, can increase the healthy behaviours of the wider population. Cattell, V., Dines, N., Gesler, W., & Curtis, S. (2008). World Health Organization: The determinants of health. 22. J Consult Clin Psychol, 169–183. Donaldson, L. (2009, February 2). In order to draw more direct parallels with the built environment, we can refer to Vitruvius and his tripartite model of the three elements required for a well-designed building7: Health is referred to in this context in more conventional terms – as the absence of disease – and typically measurable in terms of symptoms such as body temperature or blood chemistry. The effect of mindfulness-based therapy on anxiety and depression: A meta-analytic review. The effect of exercise in clinically depressed adults: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. There can be no doubt that negative physical health-related considerations associated with, for example, poor indoor environmental quality should be avoided. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 403–420. Design Council Cabe investigates how good design makes healthy places. This supports all Five Ways to Well-Being. Mindful emotion regulation: An integrative review. Washington D.C.: US Government Printing Office. Washington D.C.: National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 301–312. 8. Honold, J., Wippert, P.-M., & van der Meer, E. (2014). The Healthy Indoor Environment. For example, in a circle of seats, people facing each other will converse more than. 47. Social Psychology, 183–184. The critical next question is to discuss how the Five Ways to Well-Being relate to and are influenced by the built environment. talking and listening to family or strangers) correlates with reported well-being as well as physical health. 48. Loughborough: National Centre for Physical Activity and Health, for the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). Aknin, L., C.P., B.-L., Dunn, E., Helliwell, J., Biswas- 496. Although gyms have become increasingly popular for some (and can also support Connect), achieving improvement in fitness for all is the main goal. (2005).7730:2005 – Ergonomics of the thermal environment. 25. Bluyssen, P. (2013). (2001). The great survivor: Another 60 years. Vitruvius: The Ten Books on Architecture. Adaptive thermal comfort and sustainable thermal standards for buildings. Conversely, red, low-ceilinged, rectilinear environments are more likely to encourage focus, concentration and study. Mental capital and wellbeing. Architecture helps shape the quality of our environments and can contribute to health and happiness, writes Karl Johnson A school-girl visits Yoshihama elementary school in … Five ways to well-being: The evidence. 20. Promoting and creating built or natural environements that encourage and support physical acivity. large impact for a small population), but rather to balance and complement this with strategies to improve well-being for the wider population (i.e. Plagnol, A., & Huppert, F. (2010). London: Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment. Do school facilities affect academic outcomes? Domestic parameters include a home that is clean and uncluttered, appears safe for play and is not dark or monotonous.35 The distance and orientation of seating in relation to others will influence the level of interaction and dialogue. Happy to help? Light: natural light has a range of advantages over electric light, including its variability and efficiency, and creating an awareness and link to the outside conditions. However, overillumination can be detrimental to comfort and disrupt sleep. Recent research has demonstrated connections of key physical design characteristics with the Five Ways to Well-Being (Connect, Keep Active, Take Notice, Keep Learning and Give), which have been associated with positive mental health.13 Based on these findings, the following paragraphs reveal how the provision of local urban and domestic resources can impinge on the five healthy behaviours. consequences on physical and mental health) as well as indirect (e.g. Furthermore, the benefits to physical health are now well understood and can counteract seasonally affective disorder (sad). improved ventilation, the removal of offending materials, design interventions to prevent mould growth, etc.). 1. Chambers, R., Gullone, E., & Allen, N. (2009). Towards an adaptive model of thermal comfort and preference. Give: evidence has emerged that pro-social rather than self-centred behaviour has a positive impact on happiness. The design of our built environment affects our health and well-being, and can have long-term implications for quality of life. Cattell, V., Dines, N., Gesler, W., & Curtis, S. (2008). Response to altruistic opportunities in urban and non-urban settings. Linking landscape and health: The recurring theme. The structure of this article is divided into two sections. The availability of diverse public open space (in higher proportion than private gardens), including a variety of high quality and accessible green space (for play, exercise, contemplation, allotments, socialising, etc.) 5. The recommended level of activity is at least 30 minutes of moderate exercise (>3 mets, cycling or brisk walking) on five or more days per week, or 20 minutes of vigorous physical activity (>6 mets, jogging or gym exercises) three or more days per week41. 8. Although noise can cause stress, acoustic contact with the neighbourhood and nature can be valuable. The publication of Nudge: Improving health, wealth and happiness by Richard Thaler and Cass Sunstein in 2008 was influential in revealing that behaviour can be strongly influenced by context1. Most architecture and health conferences relate specifically to hospital design or environmental hazards in existing housing rather than health and architecture in the broader sense. It achieves this by, amongst other things, changing floor-to-ceiling heights, distinct use of colour, uneven and sloping floor surfaces, and uncomfortable door sizes. 25–33). Urban design and wellbeing. in an attempt to design the technically ‘perfect’ environment, we risk reducing the importance of the stimuli that encourage occupants to be active, aware and engaged. Winner of the 2018 IDEC Book Award With fifteen essays by scholars and professionals, from fields such as policy and law, Health and Well-being for Interior Architecture asks readers to consider climate, geography, and culture alongside human biology, psychology, and sociology. The Healthy Indoor Environment. The distance and orientation of seating in relation to others will influence the level of interaction and dialogue. Procedia – Social and Behavioural Sciences, 491–496. The presence of environmental stressors reduces helping behaviour, but little further explicit evidence is available beyond that which has been discussed above, which relates the physical environment with neighbourhood social capital.38 There is evidence that people are less altruistic in urban than in rural environments, which, if nothing else, confirms that the integration of green space and contact with nature can be valuable.39, Although it is difficult to observe altruism and its explicit relationship to design parameters, it can be shown that self-reported altruistic behaviour is more prevalent in neighbourhoods that incorporate the positive environmental and physical characteristics of space design (diversity, proximity, accessibility and quality) that have already been mentioned.40. Fanger, P. (1970). Procedia – Social and Behavioural Sciences, 491–496. London: RIBA. WHO. ASHRAE Transactions, 145–167. Meyers-Levy, J., & Zhu, R. (2007). New Statesman. NICE. Lund, H. (2002). When a space is pedestrian-oriented, as opposed to car-oriented, this is correlated with a sense of community, due to the perception of the pedestrian environment being strongly related to opportunities for social interaction.29 And finally, natural, green or landscape qualities have been widely, and for a long time, associated with a range of health benefits.30 In summary, “public spaces that brought people together and where friendships and support networks were made and maintained were key to a general sense of well-being.” 31, Physical activity (walking, cycling, sports, etc.) Gutman, L., & Akerman, R. (2008). Vitruvius: The Ten Books on Architecture. Gutman, L., & Akerman, R. (2008).Determinants of aspiration. (2014). Washington D.C.: National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 336–337. London: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Journal of Urban Health, 536– 555. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 301–312. Urban environment and mental health: A longitudinal study. NICE. New York: Dover Publications. (2011). Effects of classroom seating arrangements on children‘s question-asking. Improving executive function and its neurobiological mechanisms through a mindfulness- based intervention: Advances within the field of developmental neuroscience. The way spaces are designed affects our well-being. The first section reviews the spatially relevant definitions of well-being and their relationships to health. Krogh, J., Nordentoft, M., Sterne, J., & Lawlor, D. (2011). Can architecture create choice architecture? However, the UK Government’s ‘Foresight’ project, related to well-being19, provides the critical mass of evidence that led to the definition of the Five Ways to Well-Being mentioned above20. Happiness is therefore primarily a subjective and qualitative consideration. Nudge: Improving decisions about health, wealth and happiness. A review of the economic literature on the factors associated with subjective well-being. Sustainable places for health and Well-being. The great survivor: Another 60 years. Comfort is widely understood to be a “condition of mind which expresses satisfaction” with the environment, One key challenge is the quantification of health and well-being, and thus the assessment of the overall health performance of. ) (2008). (2013). Environmental correlates of physical activity and walking in adults and children: A review of reviews. (2008). Aked, J., Michaelson, J., & Steuer, N. (2010). Jenkins, A. For example, the shaft of sunlight in a recessed window seat that creates a moment of warmth and calm, combined with a glimpse of nature, soft and acoustically absorbent seat materials, and the tactile delight of the smooth grip to adjust a wooden shutter. 5th International Symposium on Sustainable Healthy Buildings (pp. Cambridge: Doctoral thesis, University of Cambridge. Does participating in physical activity in outdoor natural environments have a greater effect on physical and mental well-being than physical activity indoors? One of the opportunities of architecture is that, through the design of form, space and materiality, it can order our relationships with each other and our environment by creating interactive settings for life. New York: Dover Publications. Promoting and creating built or natural environements that encourage and support physical acivity. Environ Sci Technol, 1761– 1772. Prosocial spending and well-being: Cross-cultural evidence for a psychological universal. Unobstructed eye contact is an important variable particularly in an educational context, making a semicircle classroom seating arrangement most effective. Foresight. Effects of classroom seating arrangements on children‘s question-asking. Flourishing across Europe: Application of a new conceptional framework for defining well-being. Thus even modest increases in domestic and neighbourhood activity levels through design can be health-enhancing. J Clin Psychiatry, 529–538. Aim: The overall aim is to explore how healthcare architecture can contribute to health and well-being in an outpatient healthcare context. 7. US DHHS. insect boxes), and seating are examples of the kind of interventions that resulted in significantly increased observations of people stopping to take notice34. It is the built-environment characteristics that support such positive behaviour, which is a key point of discussion here. expectation, control) and quantitative physical parameters (e.g. Poor nutritional eating habits can lead to obesity and related health problems. 30. mixed use) and walkability (convenient and safe pavements, traffic calming features)32. London: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Exploring the effect of color on cognitive task performances. Lancet, 219–229. (2001). Donaldson, L. (2009, February 2). 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