Retrieved on 2013-04-25. They are ambush predators that can wait for hours, days, and even weeks for the suitable moment to attack. [130], Other ungulates are taken by Nile crocodile more or less opportunistically. No..Actually The Great White Shark has the strongest bite force among all animals.. wheres your evidence, the killer whales jaw muscles are big but like a great white shark are very weak and are made for opening fast not shutting hard. If their jaws are bound together in the extreme midday heat, Nile crocodiles may easily die from overheating. [162] The hatchlings start to make a high-pitched chirping noise before hatching, which is the signal for the mother to rip open the nest. While C. checchiai was about the same size as the larger modern Nile crocodiles, and shared similar physical characteristics to the modern species; C. anthropophagus and C. thorbjarnarsoni were both somewhat larger, with projected total lengths up to 7.5–7.6 m (24 ft 7 in–24 ft 11 in). In the largest size range studied by Cott, 4–5 m (13 ft 1 in–16 ft 5 in), they were the second most likely to either have full stomachs (10%) or empty stomachs (20%). [7] However, mouth-gaping (while essential to thermoregulation) may also serve as a threat display to other crocodiles, for example when specimens have been observed mouth-gaping at night when overheating is not a risk. It is known for its death roll, it grabs its prey and roll it powerful until prey died. A 16 foot Saltwater Crocodile in Australia had a bite force of 3900 pounds per square inch! [3][10] The Nile crocodile is one of the most dangerous species of crocodile and is responsible for hundreds of human deaths every year. More time is spent in water in overcast, rainy, or misty days. I have seen Nile crocs in the Mara river in Kenya. [166] Mammalian predators can take nearly as heavy of a toll, especially large mongooses such the Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon) in the north and the water mongoose in the south of crocodile's range. This size range consists of subadult males and a mixture of subadult and adult females. In particular, the genus Kobus is often among the most vulnerable because it forages primarily in wetland areas and seeks to evade more prolific mammalian predators (such as hyenas, lions, etc.) [7][49], For the crocodile inhabiting west and northwest Africa, see, Natural mortality of young Nile crocodiles. It makes its prey off balance and making easier to drag the prey to water. Crocs do eat bull sharks all the time though. [38] The broadest snouted modern crocodilians are alligators and larger caimans. Its place in the ecosystems it inhabits is largely unique, as it is the only large tetrapod carnivore that spends the majority of its life in water and hunting prey associated with aquatic zones. Steven M. Goodman', Sheila O'Connor, and Olivier Langrand, Goodman, S. M., O’Connor, S., & Langrand, O. They can apply high levels of force for extended periods of time, a great advantage for holding down large prey underwater to drown.[7]. Gewürztraminer) and spices, the Saltie makes for delicious eating. These communal nesting sites are not known to exist today, perhaps being most recently recorded at Ntoroko peninsula, Uganda where two such sites remaining until 1952. [11] It is a rather common species of crocodile and is not endangered despite some regional declines or extinctions. [27][29] Their skin has a number of poorly understood integumentary sense organs that may react to changes in water pressure, presumably allowing them to track prey movements in the water. but against any other animal are pretty much untouchable. While these are probably sometimes used as gastroliths, they are likely often ingested for their nutritional value. [10][150], During the mating season, males attract females by bellowing, slapping their snouts in the water, blowing water out of their noses, and making a variety of other noises. Great white sharks and crocs barely ever meet, so a croc would not predate upon a great white at all. Visit crocodile farms in Thailand or Phillipines.. 7m can be found in crocodile farms in Australia and Borneo.. Lolong, the biggest saltie ever caught and measured, weighed 1075 kg. Saltwater Crocodile - Crocodylus porosus Largest living crocodilian species with a confirmed measurement, and in fact the world's largest living reptile in terms of mass. [19] The distributional boundaries between these species were poorly understood, but following several studies, they are now better known. Miscellaneous examples of areas in the last few decades with a dozen or more fatal crocodile attacks annually include Korogwe District, Tanzania, Niassa Reserve, Mozambique and the area around Lower Zambezi National Park, Zambia. Carcass size shapes the structure and functioning of an African scavenging assemblage. Most of the predators of eggs also opportunistically eat young crocodiles, including monitors and marabous, plus almost all co-existing raptorial birds, including vultures, eagles, and large owls and buzzards. [3][7][27] Birds most often taken are African darters (Anhinga rufa) and reed (Microcarbo africanus) and white-breasted cormorants (Phalacrocorax lucidus), followed by various waterfowl, including most breeding geese and ducks in Africa. They are ambush predator and wait for prey to come to them. However, as crocodiles grow, relying solely on small and agile food items such as fish becomes difficult, this causes a shift in the diet as the animal matures, for energy conservation purposes, as in other predators. Beyond their ready availability and respectable size, turtles are favored by big crocodiles due to their slowness, which allows the cumbersome crocodiles to capture them more easily than swifter vertebrates. the Nile only weighs from 800-900 kg’s. [4][6][9] According to Cott (1961), the average length and weight of Nile crocodiles from Uganda and Zambia in breeding maturity was 3.16 m (10 ft 4 in) and 137.5 kg (303 lb). [7] Although not a regular sea-going species as is the American crocodile, and especially the saltwater crocodile, the Nile crocodile possesses salt glands like all true crocodiles (but not alligators and caimans), and does on occasion enter coastal and even marine waters. This predator can destroy about 50% of studied Nile crocodile eggs on its own, often being successful (as are other nest predators) in light of the trance-like state that the mother crocodile enters while brooding or taking advantage of moments where she is distracted or needs to leave the nest. The enlarged fourth lower tooth fits into the notch on the upper jaw and is visible when the jaws are closed, as is the case with all true crocodiles. Nile crocodile on other hand found in African region and comes under second largest reptile in the world. Based on these findings, it has also been suggested that crocodiles may act as seed dispersers. [117], Adult Nile crocodiles, i.e. giant water bugs but also crickets and dragonflies. For example, Herodotus recorded the species inhabiting Lake Moeris in Egypt. Crocodiles feature a mouth full of sharp teeth. "Late Miocene-early Pliocene crocodilian fauna of Lothagam, Southwest Turkana basin, Kenya", in Leakey M. G. & Harris J. M. (eds), Lothagam: the Dawn of Humanity in Eastern Africa. It has bite force of 3900 pounds per square inch. There are no living Deinosuchus specimens to hook up to measuring equipment, but extrapolating from the saltwater crocodile — and examining the shape and orientation of this prehistoric crocodile's skull — paleontologists have arrived at a bite force … [7][96] In some cases in Kruger National Park, antelope have been driven into water while being pursued by packs of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), which hunt by endurance, engaging prey in a grueling chase until it is exhausted (a very successful hunting style), only to be killed by opportunistic crocodiles. [75] Out of water, however, the Nile crocodile can only rely on its limbs, as it gallops on solid ground, to chase prey. A 4.59 m (15.1 ft)-long saltwater crocodile has been confirmed as having the highest bite force ever recorded for an animal in a laboratory setting, with a bite force value of 16,414 N (1,673.8 kgf) (surpassing the previous record of 13,172 N (1,343.2 kgf) made by an American alligator (Alligator mississippinesis)). In one case in the Tana River of Kenya, as observed by Max Fleishmann (communicated via letter to Theodore Roosevelt), a crocodile was able to bring down one of these huge herbivores by the help of muddy bank terrain, the adult female rhino's poor decision to enter deeper water rather than retreat to land and finally having been joined in drowning the animal by one to two other crocodiles. Required fields are marked *. [163][164] It is thought to be either difficult or impossible for hatchlings to escape the nest burrow without assistance, as the surface may become very heavy and packed above them. 'On the internet you usually find pictures of buffalo, hippo, and lion fighting - but very rarely crocodiles.' In one area, 17 craters were found in an area of 25 yd × 22 yd (75 ft × 66 ft), in another 24 in an area of 26 yd × 24 yd (78 ft × 72 ft). Agreed. [7] They have an ectothermic metabolism, so can survive for long periods between meals—though when they do eat, they can eat up to half their body weight at a time. "Lolong, a saltwater crocodile from the Philippines, was 6.17 m [20 feet 3 inches] long and holds the Guinness World Record for the largest crocodile ever captured. [8] Young crocodiles feed more actively than their elders according to studies in Uganda and Zambia. Nile crocodiles are relatively social crocodiles. Although Nile crocodiles are more than a dozen times more numerous than lions in the wild, probably fewer than a quarter of living Nile crocodiles are old and large enough to pose a danger to humans. It is the largest freshwater predator in Africa, and may be considered the second-largest extant reptile in the world, after the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus). The binomial name Crocodylus niloticus is derived from the Greek κρόκη, kroke ("pebble"), δρῖλος, drilos ("worm"), referring to its rough skin; and niloticus, meaning "from the Nile River". When a jaguar pounces, sometimes one bite is all it takes to get a meal. Due to its widespread occurrence and stable population trend, it has been listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List since 1996. [96][112][130][144] However, in order to save energy, crocodiles do not prefer such agile animals, as most attacks will end before they can strike. They are very aggressive species which is capable of hunting any animal species. Many other genera are taken widely and relatively regularly, including Tilapia (which was the most significant prey genus in Lake Turkana), Clarias, Haplochromis, and Mormyrus. by traveling along waterways. [174] Recovery for the species appears quite gradual and few areas have recovered to bear crocodile populations, i.e. Multiple, other sources have listed this as a maximum or near maximum size. [40][41], The Nile crocodile is the largest crocodilian in Africa, and is generally considered the second-largest crocodilian after the saltwater crocodile. [3] Similarly, a wide range of studies from southern Africa found that the average length for females at the onset of sexual maturity was 2.33 m (7 ft 8 in). Arachnids such as Dolomedes water spiders are taken, but always secondarily to insects in Uganda and Zambia. [20] The separation of the two is not recognized by the IUCN as their last evaluations of the group was in 2008 and 2009,[1][21] years before the primary publications supporting the distinction of the West African crocodiles. [6][7][170] Perhaps no predator is more deadly to young Nile crocodiles than larger crocodiles of their own species, as, like most crocodilians, they are cannibalistic. Slow-swimming pelicans are also frequently vulnerable to crocodiles. The ecology and physiology of the Nile crocodile. In general, at the smallest sizes (0.3–1 m (1 ft 0 in–3 ft 3 in)), Nile crocodiles were most likely to have full stomachs (17.4% full per Cott); adults at 3–4 m (9 ft 10 in–13 ft 1 in) in length were most likely to have empty stomachs (20.2%). Osprey (. These are officially due to unknown causes but analysis has indicated that environmental pollutants caused by humans, particularly the burgeoning coal industry, are the primary cause. [17][19][20] DNA from West African crocodiles has indicated that, unlike the Nile crocodile, it is most closely related to East Asian species, such as the Philippine crocodile (Crocodylus mindorensis), than other extant crocodilians. [3] In the Okavango Delta, Botswana, the diet was similar but young crocodiles ate a broader range of insects and invertebrates, with beetles taken in similar numbers to other, similar prey, both aquatic and terrestrial. Levels of lactic acid as high as they are in a crocodile would kill most vertebrates. Such predators that can find themselves victim to crocodiles include hyenas (3 out of 4 species reported as prey for Nile crocodiles, only the desert-dwelling brown (Hyaena brunnea) being excluded),[112][145] African wild dogs, jackals,[80][96] and cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). The Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) is a large crocodilian native to freshwater habitats in Africa, where it is present in 26 countries. They were found as far north as the Mediterranean coast in the Nile Delta and across the Red Sea in Palestine and Syria. Once the eggs hatch, the female may lead the hatchlings to water, or even carry them there in her mouth, as female American alligators have been observed doing. Nile crocodile has more rough and thick skin. [3][7] As an example of the body mass increase undergone by mature crocodiles, one of the larger crocodiles handled firsthand by Cott (1961) was 4.4 m (14 ft 5 in) and weighed 414.5 kg (914 lb), while the largest specimen measured by Graham and Beard (1973) was 4.8 m (15 ft 9 in) and weighed more than 680 kg (1,500 lb). [3][70] Although they can remain practically motionless for hours on end, whether basking or sitting in shallows, Nile crocodiles are said to be constantly aware of their surroundings and aware of the presence of other animals. the saltie has every advantage and reason to win but in the end are both apex amazing predators which have out lived the greatest of dinosaurs. According to Graham and Beard (1968), Nile crocodile meat has an "indescribable" and unpleasant taste, greasy texture and a "repellent" smell.[49][177]. [55] This species’ historic range, however, was even wider. In the Zambezi River and Lake St. Lucia, Nile crocodiles have been known to prey on bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) and sand tiger sharks (Carcharias taurus). Micheal: I agree that to me the Saltwater Crocodile is the most terrifying predator in the world (other than humans as we have weapons that will kill them easily) but I can’t see a saltwater croc having much luck against a full-grown male killer whale! The Nile crocodile is the top predator in its environment, and is responsible for checking the population of mesopredator species, such as the barbel catfish and lungfish, that could overeat fish populations on which other species, including birds, rely. Saltwater Crocodile wins 6 times out of 10 times. [3][4][5] The saltie more aggressive? India, Andaman and Nicobar island, Australia, Sri lanka. [7][27], Nile crocodiles usually dive for only a few minutes at a time, but can swim under water up to 30 minutes if threatened, and if they remain fully inactive, they can hold their breath for up to 2 hours (which, as aforementioned, is due to the high levels of lactic acid in their blood). So could they hybridize if, uh, you know, they didn’t want to fight? Due to its widespread occurrence and stable population trend, it has been listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List since 1996. The nesting season can fall in nearly every month of the year. Pretty sure the Salty is both bigger, heavier and stronger than the Nile. "Spatial distribution of lion kills determined by the water dependency of prey species", "Social signals and behaviors of adult alligators and crocodiles", "A new horned crocodile from the Plio-Pleistocene hominid sites at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania", The forensic identification of crocodilian hides and products, "Structure, innervation and response properties of integumentary sensory organs in crocodilians", "Reptilian heart development and the molecular basis of cardiac chamber evolution", "Crocodylian snouts in space and time: phylogenetic approaches toward adaptive radiation", "Insights into the Ecology and Evolutionary Success of Crocodilians Revealed through Bite-Force and Tooth-Pressure Experimentation", "Non-detriment Finding Studies on Nile Crocodile (, 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-1.RLTS.T46584A3009688.en, "A Cultural Herpetology of Nile Crocodiles in Africa", "Nile Crocodiles Found Really Far Out of Africa. At this time of plenty (before irrigation operations by humans led St. Lucia to have dangerously high saline levels), a 2.5 m (8 ft 2 in) crocodile could expect to eat 1.1 kg (2.4 lb) of mullet daily, an exceptionally large daily amount for a crocodile. Sydney russel, he means force by strength. Natural predation on quelea. Most hunting on land is done at night by lying in ambush near forest trails or roadsides, up to 50 m (170 ft) from the water's edge. [7], The species was previously thought to extend in range into the whole of West and Central Africa,[59][60] but these populations are now typically recognized as a distinct species, the West African (or desert) crocodile. For instance I always believed Siberian Tigers were the biggest living felids, but now not only are Bengal Tigers said to be bigger but Lions are bigger still. A saltwater crocodile does not have a stronger bite force than a Nile crocodile period. [3][7] At other times, the female will fiercely attack anything approaching their eggs, sometimes joined by another crocodile which may be the sire of the young. Hippopotamus calves have been observed to at times act brazenly around crocodiles, foraging without apparent concern and even bumping into the reptiles. On top of that, salties have been recorded attacking and killing sharks for a consistent diet, something that happens very rarely and seen even more so with Killer whales. [166] Unsurprisingly, once exposed to the elements as hatchlings, the young, small Nile crocodiles are even more vulnerable. [3] In some regions, males have reportedly mated with several females, perhaps any female that enters his claimed territory, though in most regions annual monogamy appears to be most common in this species. If this happened? Salty’s can be 20 ft. long also, but are giving up thousands of pounds to killer whales. Adults can eat young Hippo, buffalos, zebras, hyenas, warthlogs, antelope, baboons, giraffe, wildebeest and big cats. [78] Since their speed and agility on land is rather outmatched by most terrestrial animals, they must use obscuring vegetation or terrain to have a chance of succeeding during land-based hunts. Nile crocodile comes under one of the dangerous species of crocodile and responsible for hundreds of human deaths. [15][16] In a study of the morphology of the various populations, including C. (n.) suchus, the appearance of the Nile crocodile sensu lato was found to be more variable than any other currently recognized crocodile species, and at least some of these variations were related to locality. Which is true I don’t know. For most of a crocodile's life, broken teeth can be replaced. Leslie, A.J. Saltwater Crocodiles also have the strongest bite of any animal alive today, with their bite force being similar to the estimated bite of T. rex. Lolong was the longest and heaviest ever caught in the wild, presently there are over hundreds of crocks over 7 metre or 22 ft in the wild in southern Philippines weighing over 2000lbs. [18][21] In Lake St. Lucia, highly saline water has been pumped into the already brackish waters due to irrigation practices. (1997). [3][64], Nile crocodiles are an invasive species in North America, and several specimens have been recently captured in South Florida, though no signs that the population is reproducing in the wild have been found. The female digs a hole a few metres from the bank and up to 0.5 m (20 in) deep, and lays on average between 25 and 80 eggs. Gastroliths are not present in hatchlings, but increase quickly in presence within most crocodiles examined at 2–3.1 m (6 ft 7 in–10 ft 2 in) and yet normally become extremely rare again in very large specimens, meaning that some animals may eventually expel them. Mollusks may occasionally be taken by young crocodiles (they are taken in larger numbers later in life in parts of Uganda and Zambia). [18] The segregation of the West African crocodile (C. suchus) from the Nile crocodile has been supported by morphological characteristics,[17][19] studies of genetic materials[16][19] and habitat preferences. Killer whale has strongest bite force of any animal. [165] The new mother will protect her offspring for up to two years, and if there are multiple nests in the same area, the mothers may form a crèche. Among crocodilians today, only the saltwater crocodile occurs over a broader geographic area,[54] although other species, especially the spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus) (due to its small size and extreme adaptability in habitat and flexibility in diet), seem to actually be more abundant. However, Cott (1961) found that the only size range where fish were numerically dominant over other types of food was from 2 to 3.05 m (6 ft 7 in to 10 ft 0 in). Both predators would have an adrenaline surge for the fight, and whichever croc has the longer lasting surge will win in all likelihood. [3][153] Nile crocodiles have temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), which means the sex of their hatchlings is determined not by genetics as is the case in mammals and birds, but by the average temperature during the middle third of their incubation period. Small, E. (2013). In order to handle, 16 foot salt crocodile, an average of 10 strong men are required. [166] The single most virulent predator of nests is almost certainly the Nile monitor. Communal nesting areas also reported from Lake Victoria (up until the 1930s) and also in the 20th century at Rahad River, Lake Turkana and Malawi. [18] In Lake Sibaya, South Africa, it was determined that in the 21st century, persecution continues as the direct cause for the inability of Nile crocodiles to recover after the leather trade last century. [43] In East Africa, they are found mostly in rivers, lakes, marshes, and dams, favoring open, broad bodies of water over smaller ones. Frank, L., Hemson, G., Kushnir, H., & Packer, C. (2006, January). However, it pales in comparison to its saltwater cousin and the other large crocodiles on this list and is really not a fatal threat to humans, though they can certainly deliver an unpleasant bite. Even swift prey are not immune to attack. [187] In comparison, lions, in the years from 1990 to 2006, were responsible for an estimated one-eighth as many fatal attacks on humans in Africa as were Nile crocodiles. Gastropoda (4126 records per Cott) were taken much more than Lamellibranchiata (six records). [6][15][184][185] While these species are much more aggressive toward people than other living crocodilians (as is statistically supported by estimated numbers of crocodile attacks), Nile crocodiles are not particularly more likely to behave aggressively to humans or regard humans as potential prey than saltwater crocodiles.